Cannabis study reveals how CBD offsets the psychiatric side-effects of THC – EurekAlert

Researchers at Western University have shown for the first time the molecular mechanisms at work that cause cannabidiol, or CBD, to block the psychiatric side-effects caused by tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive chemical in cannabis.

It has been previously shown that strains of cannabis with high levels of THC and low levels of CBD can cause increased psychiatric effects, including paranoia, anxiety and addictive-behaviours, but why that was occurring was not fully understood.

Steven Laviolette, PhD, and his research team used rats to investigate the role of a molecule in the brain’s hippocampus called extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) which triggers the neuropsychiatric effects of THC.

„For years we have known that strains of cannabis high in THC and low in CBD were more likely to cause psychiatric side-effects,” said Laviolette, a professor at Western’s Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry. „Our findings identify for the first time the molecular mechanisms by which CBD may actually block these THC-related side-effects.”

The research, published in the Journal of Neuroscience demonstrates that rats that were given THC had higher levels of activated ERK, showed more anxiety behaviours and were more sensitive to fear-based learning. Rats that were given both CBD and THC acted like the control rats: they had normal levels of activated ERK, less anxiety behaviours, and were less sensitive to fear-based learning.

Based on these results, the research team proposes that CBD blocks the ability of THC to overstimulate the ERK pathway in the hippocampus and thus prevent its negative side-effects.

„Our findings have important implications for prescribing cannabis and long-term cannabis use. For example, for individuals more prone to cannabis-related side-effects, it is critical to limit use to strains with high CBD and low THC content,” said Laviolette. „More importantly, this discovery opens up a new molecular frontier for developing more effective and safer THC formulations.”

PhD Candidate and Vanier Scholar Roger Hudson, lead author on the study, says another interesting finding was that CBD alone had no effect on the ERK pathway. „CBD by itself had no effect,” he said. „However, by co-administering CBD and THC, we completely reversed the direction of the change on a molecular level. CBD was also able to reverse the anxiety-like behaviour and addictive-like behaviour caused by the THC.”

Laviolette says they will be following up these studies by continuing to identify the specific features of this molecular mechanism. The research team will examine ways to formulate THC with fewer side effects and to improve the efficacy of CBD-derived therapies.

###

ABOUT WESTERN

Western University delivers an academic experience second to none. Since 1878, The Western Experience has combined academic excellence with life-long opportunities for intellectual, social and cultural growth in order to better serve our communities. Our research excellence expands knowledge and drives discovery with real-world application. Western attracts individuals with a broad worldview, seeking to study, influence and lead in the international community.

ABOUT THE SCHULICH SCHOOL OF MEDICINE & DENTISTRY

The Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry at Western University is one of Canada’s preeminent medical and dental schools. Established in 1881, it was one of the founding schools of Western University and is known for being the birthplace of family medicine in Canada. For more than 130 years, the School has demonstrated a commitment to academic excellence and a passion for scientific discovery.

MEDIA CONTACT: Crystal Mackay, Media Relations Officer, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University, t. 519.661.2111 ext. 80387, c. 519.933.5944, crystal.mackay@schulich.uwo.ca @CrystalMackay

Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.

Cannabis’s non-psychoactive component CBD calms anxiety from too much THC, rat study suggests – Daily Mail

High levels of cannabidiol (CBD) in marijuana may ‚dilute’ the psychoactive side-effects of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), new research suggests.

In a study conducted in rats, researchers from Vanier College in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, found that when rodents were given a combination of CBD and THC, they behaved less anxiously than when they were given THC on its own.

They believe this is because THC causes spikes in levels of a protein called ERK, which disrupts the ability the brains of animals – and humans – to process and cope with negative emotions like stress and move past them.

In turn, this leads to increased levels of anxiety and paranoia. 

The findings suggest that CBD may be able to decrease these levels.

A new study from Vanier College in Canada found that marijuana with high levels of THC compared to CBD causes levels of a protein called ERK to spike, which leads to increased anxiety (file image)

A new study from Vanier College in Canada found that marijuana with high levels of THC compared to CBD causes levels of a protein called ERK to spike, which leads to increased anxiety (file image)

A new study from Vanier College in Canada found that marijuana with high levels of THC compared to CBD causes levels of a protein called ERK to spike, which leads to increased anxiety (file image) 

THC and CBD are both derived from the cannabis plant.

Together, they are part of the cannabinoid group of compounds found in hashish, hash oil, and most strains of marijuana.

THC is the psychoactive compound responsible for the euphoric, ‚high’ feeling often associated with marijuana.

The compound interacts with CB1 receptors in the central nervous system and brain and creates the sensations of euphoria and anxiety.

But CBD, which is non-psychoactive, does not fit these receptors well and is believed to be responsible for some of marijuana’s therapeutic effects such as pain relief.

Previous research has found that strains of pot with high levels of THC and low levels of CBD have increased side effects such as paranoia and anxiety.

However, the biological mechanism behind this process was not understood. 

For the new study, published in the journal JNeurosci, the team split rats into three groups.

The first group was given THC on its own, the second was given a combination of THC and CBD and the third group was given neither.

Researchers found that the rodents given just THC had higher levels than normal of a protein called ERK and were more anxious. 

But the rats that were given both CBD and THC behaved similarly to the control rats; both of these groups had normal levels of ERK and had less anxious behavior.

The researchers believe, based on these results, that THC activates ERK while CBD inhibits it. 

One study found that ER visits related to marijuana increased by at least four-fold in Colorado after marijuana was legalized.  

In 2012, doctors at UCHealth University of Colorado Hospital saw about one patient every other day with a marijuana-related issue. 

By 2016, doctors were seeing two to three such patients per day. 

Patients often came in with conditions such as racing hearts – which could an effect of THC increasing levels of anxiety. 

Recreational marijuana is legal in 11 states and Washington, DC, and 33 states and DC have legalized medical marijuana.

A 2018 poll from the Pew Research Center found that 62 percent of Americans support legalizing marijuana, double the number from two decades ago in 2000.

Opinions of legalization differ by political party, with 69 percent of Democrats supporting it compared with 75 percent of Independents and just 45 percent of Republicans. 

Cannabis study reveals how CBD offsets the psychiatric side-effects of THC – Science Daily

Researchers at Western University have shown for the first time the molecular mechanisms at work that cause cannabidiol, or CBD, to block the psychiatric side-effects caused by tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive chemical in cannabis.

It has been previously shown that strains of cannabis with high levels of THC and low levels of CBD can cause increased psychiatric effects, including paranoia, anxiety and addictive-behaviours, but why that was occurring was not fully understood.

Steven Laviolette, PhD, and his research team used rats to investigate the role of a molecule in the brain’s hippocampus called extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) which triggers the neuropsychiatric effects of THC.

„For years we have known that strains of cannabis high in THC and low in CBD were more likely to cause psychiatric side-effects,” said Laviolette, a professor at Western’s Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry. „Our findings identify for the first time the molecular mechanisms by which CBD may actually block these THC-related side-effects.”

The research, published in the Journal of Neuroscience demonstrates that rats that were given THC had higher levels of activated ERK, showed more anxiety behaviours and were more sensitive to fear-based learning. Rats that were given both CBD and THC acted like the control rats: they had normal levels of activated ERK, less anxiety behaviours, and were less sensitive to fear-based learning.

Based on these results, the research team proposes that CBD blocks the ability of THC to overstimulate the ERK pathway in the hippocampus and thus prevent its negative side-effects.

„Our findings have important implications for prescribing cannabis and long-term cannabis use. For example, for individuals more prone to cannabis-related side-effects, it is critical to limit use to strains with high CBD and low THC content,” said Laviolette. „More importantly, this discovery opens up a new molecular frontier for developing more effective and safer THC formulations.”

PhD Candidate and Vanier Scholar Roger Hudson, lead author on the study, says another interesting finding was that CBD alone had no effect on the ERK pathway. „CBD by itself had no effect,” he said. „However, by co-administering CBD and THC, we completely reversed the direction of the change on a molecular level. CBD was also able to reverse the anxiety-like behaviour and addictive-like behaviour caused by the THC.”

Laviolette says they will be following up these studies by continuing to identify the specific features of this molecular mechanism. The research team will examine ways to formulate THC with fewer side effects and to improve the efficacy of CBD-derived therapies.

Story Source:

Materials provided by University of Western Ontario. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Hydrogen Cyanide Found In Bootleg Marijuana Vaping Products – Refinery29

NBC commissioned a California cannabis testing facility to look at 18 different vaping cartridges containing THC, the psychoactive chemical found in marijuana. They did testing on products from legal dispensaries and unlicensed dealers. The lab they used, CannaSafe, tested 10 black market cartridges for pesticides, and all 10 came back positive. Specifically, they contained the ingredient myclobutanil, which can turn into hydrogen cyanide when burned, NBC reported.

Things to consider before buying a vaporizer – KnowTechie

In this post, we’re going to discuss the best features you should look for when buying a vaporizer. Since the legalization of cannabis in some of the major countries, the numbers of vapers is increasing.

So if you are thinking to give this a try or if you wish to own an herbal vaporizer then we have a list of some significant things one needs to look before owning one.

Desktop or Portable Vaporizer

First off you will want to determine where and how you will use it. You have to decide where you want to use the vaporizer then you can go for either type of the vaporizer. In portable, you can charge them, you’ve got inbuilt batteries, and so you can put them in your pocket, take them out and have sessions outdoors while with desktop vaporizers, you’re a bit more restricted. They have cords affixed to the back. So, you can’t really get too far of them even with an extension cord.

We would recommend portable vaporizers for most people as they are more comfortable. Desktops are great for people wanting to vape at home but generally come with a hefty price tag. Portable vaporizers are great for both home use and vaping discreetly while in public. 

Size

This is also a matter you want to think about. The larger the vaporizer, the harder it’ll be to hide in public or carry it around with you on the go. While on the contrary some of the smallest vaporizers out there tend to get very hot while in use and it may be a little uncomfortable to hold wall at hotter temperatures. 

Features of the device

The main prominent features you need to look for are temperature controls, app interface, and heat up times. Perhaps one of our most preferred features of any device one buy is precise controls. This feature will allow you to control your temperature to the exact degree giving you the precision needed to control your high.

Temperature control is one of the most important things to consider while buying a vaporizer. It is good with a desktop vaporizer but you need to keep an eye on this thing when you are looking for budget-friendly portable vaporizer and vape pens.

Battery 

The battery is another big concern when discussing portable vaporizers. Removable batteries offer an easy and affordable way to give the vaporizer longer usage times while on the go. Devices with generic 18650 batteries are ideal because you can buy them any smoke shop and you don’t have to pay for proprietary batteries which generally cost more.

The battery capacity of the device is according to the price. Generally, 650 mAh is ideal and if you go for high capacity then choose Kandypens oura portable vaporizer which comes with 3000 mAh battery capacity. 

Material

Last but certainly not least you’ll want to look into materials used especially in the air path. The most desirable materials used in a vaporizer are typically glass and ceramics and they are best-tasting as well. Ceramic is a top favorite among vapers because it burns at a little high temperature than aluminum and it has superior heat conductivity.

Glass and stainless steel are also good options if you are looking for cheaper options. Oftentimes plastics and metals can introduce an unwanted flavor while you’re vaping so choose wisely.

So these are some important things you need to look into before buying a vaporizer.

Have any thoughts on this? Let us know down below in the comments or carry the discussion over to our Twitter or Facebook.

Editors’ Recommendations:

Just another guy who likes to write about tech and gadgets.

Celebrities Who Love CBD Products | Shape – Shape Magazine

| Shape

this link is to an external site that may or may not meet accessibility guidelines.

What’s in your CBD? Test results from nine samples of cannabidiol products show some surprising results that could produce serious health side effects – CBS News

CBD (or cannabidiol) products, containing a compound found in marijuana, have skyrocketed in popularity and seem to be for sale everywhere, from grocery stores, to coffee shops and gas stations.

CBD itself does not get you high, but advocates say it can help with anything from muscle aches to anxiety. It’s forecast to become a $22 billion industry by 2024.

But without wide federal oversight, there is no way of really knowing what’s inside CBD.

So, we decided to find out.

CBS News partnered with Mile High Labs, in Colorado, to test nine CBD oil samples purchased from around the country.

testing-cbd-products.jpg Test results from nine samples of cannabidiol (CBD) products show some surprising results that could produce serious health side-effects. CBS News

It took two days for senior lab associate Joshua Cogell to test our nine samples, checking for CBD and for THC (the ingredient in marijuana that gives a high), and also for dangerous impurities, like pesticides and heavy metals.

„We test for four different heavy metals: mercury, arsenic, cadmium and lead,” said Cogell.

„They all sound bad,” said correspondent Barry Petersen.

„They are very, yes, things you do not want in your body.”

The CBD craze took off when President Trump signed the Farm Bill last December. The bill allows farmers to legally grow hemp, the source of CBD. It is a member of the marijuana plant family, but it produces only trace amounts of THC. Under the bill, the government allows less than 0.3 percent THC in CBD products.

Here’s what Mile High found in our samples:

  • None had pesticides or heavy metals above federal standards.
  • The THC levels were all within federal guidelines.

But when it came to dosages advertised on the label…watch out!

  • Four samples were pretty much right on.
  • Two samples cheated you, giving only 60 to 80 percent of the advertised dosage.
  • Then there were the over-performers: A thousand-milligram sample was really 1,100 mg. – ten percent higher.
  • And one was way over – 210 percent of what the label said.

„This last sample claimed 500 milligrams in the bottle, and we measured 210% in the bottle,” said Cogell.

„That’s really concerning to me,” said Steve Mueller, who founded Mile High Labs in Loveland, Colorado, and is its CEO. He testified at FDA hearings arguing for federal regulation to ensure accuracy in labeling.

„Right now, there’s no one enforcing any of those things,” Mueller said. „It’s sort of up to the companies to do it themselves.”

„So, that really is the Wild West – whatever you say is what ends up on the label, is what people think they’re buying?” asked Petersen.

„Yeah, you can see that from the results here that it is the Wild West,” Mueller said. „And what you get on the shelf is, you don’t really know.”

To find out if what we don’t know can hurt us, Petersen went to the emergency room at U.C. Health University of Colorado Hospital. There he met Dr. Andrew Monte, a toxicologist and emergency medicine physician who has treated people who’ve ingested too much CBD.

„Patients actually can become more somnolent than would be expected,” Dr. Monte said. „So, they could become very sleepy. Patients can also get nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Those are the most common side effects from oral CBD.”

And here is another „buyer beware”: don’t turn to CBD and turn away from medications your doctor prescribed.

„It seems to me that people have no problem with paying $50 for a very small vial of cannabidiol, yet they don’t wanna pay their $5 copay for a medicine that’s actually been tested in a randomized controlled clinical trial,” Dr. Monte said.

Now, it’s worth mentioning Dr. Monte tells CBS News that cannabinoids do interact with prescription drugs. But because we lack reliable controlled trials, we don’t have enough detail to understand all the interactions.

ChineseInvestors.com Inc. Announces CBD Biotech, Inc.’s Most Recent Expansion – Yahoo Finance

SAN GABRIEL, California, Sept. 30, 2019 /PRNewswire/ — ChineseInvestors.com, Inc. (CIIX) (the „Company”), a premier provider of financial news and education for the Chinese-speaking community announced today that its subsidiary, CBD Biotech, Inc., („CBD Biotech”) has expanded into six new countries and a new region of China via its newest sales channel, Shopee, a popular Singaporean e-commerce platform. Launched in 2015, Shopee is now the largest e-commerce platform in Southeast Asia with more than 4 million registered businesses, 200 million app downloads, 30 million social media fans over 7 million active buyers. According to Google and Temasek’s Southeast Asia Internet Economy Report, by 2025, Southeast Asia’s e-commerce market is expected to reach $240 billion. According to the latest report by App Annie, iPrice Group and Similar Web, in the second quarter of 2019, Shopee ranked first in terms of active users (MAU), desktop and mobile network visits and total downloads among the APP shopping category in Southeast Asia.

Southeast Asia, has allowed CBD Biotech to execute on our plans for expansion throughout Asia. Thanks to Shopee, we are now in seven new major markets: Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam, Philippines and Taiwan, China,” says Alex Hamilton, Chief Financial Officer of CBD Biotech, Inc.

  • Aqua Bio Magnetic Mask (box of 10 30 ml)
  • CBD Hemp Eye Mask (box of 7)
  • CBD Handmade Horse Oil Soap
  • CBD Hemp Live Oxygen Collection (set of 4)
  • Water Double-Layer Moisturizing Cream
  • Summer Yun, Chief Executive Officer of CBD Biotech, Inc. „Our expansion via Shopee goes a long way in implementing our strategic plan which includes both geographical expansion and continuing to build our loyal customer base. As a first mover in the industrial hemp/CBD skincare industry in Asia, we hope when one thinks of CBD skincare/cosmetics, CBD Biotech is the first name that comes to mind.”

    Founded in 1999, ChineseInvestors.com endeavors to be an innovative company providing: (a) real-time market commentary, analysis and educational-related services in Chinese language character sets (traditional and simplified); (b) advertising and public relations-related support services; and (c) sales of industrial hemp products and other health and wellness products.

    For more information, visit the company’s website:

    www.ChineseInvestors.com.” data-reactid=”25″>www.ChineseInvestors.com.

    https://www.youtube.com/user/Chinesefn.com” data-reactid=”26″>Subscribe and watch our video commentaries: https://www.youtube.com/user/Chinesefn.com

    https://twitter.com/ChineseFNEnglsh” data-reactid=”27″>Follow us on Twitter for real-time Company updates: https://twitter.com/ChineseFNEnglsh

    Like us on Facebook to receive live feeds:

    https://www.facebook.com/Chinesefn.com; https://www.facebook.com/Chineseinvestors.com.english” data-reactid=”29″>https://www.facebook.com/Chinesefn.comhttps://www.facebook.com/Chineseinvestors.com.english

    Add us on WeChat: Chinesefn or download iPhone iOS App: Chinesefn

    This release contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. All forward-looking statements are inherently uncertain as they are based on current expectations and assumptions concerning future events or future performance of the company. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which are only predictions and speak only as of the date hereof. In evaluating such statements, prospective investors should review carefully various risks and uncertainties identified in this release and matters set in the company’s SEC filings. These risks and uncertainties could cause the company’s actual results to differ materially from those indicated in the forward-looking statements.

    San Gabriel, CA 91776

    PR@chinesefn.com” data-reactid=”36″>Alan Klitenic
    +1-214-636-2548
    PR@chinesefn.com

    www.NetworkNewsWire.com
    +1-212-418-1217 Office
    Editor@NetworkNewsWire.com” data-reactid=”37″>Corporate Communications:
    NetworkNewsWire (NNW)
    New York, New York
    www.NetworkNewsWire.com
    +1-212-418-1217 Office
    Editor@NetworkNewsWire.com

    http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/chineseinvestorscom-inc-announces-cbd-biotech-incs-most-recent-expansion-300927455.html” data-reactid=”49″>View original content:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/chineseinvestorscom-inc-announces-cbd-biotech-incs-most-recent-expansion-300927455.html

    CBD experts, medical doctor on Staten Island cite possible health benefits – SILive.com

    STATEN ISLAND, N.Y.– More research needs to be done, but so far there’s no harm in recommending Cannabidiol (CBD) to patients experiencing chronic pain or neurological conditions, said Dr. Theodore Strange, associate chair of Staten Island University Hospital.

    “Patients have come in and asked for it,” said Strange. „They don’t want to go on an opioid, or they can’t tolerate nonsteroidal (medications) that bother their stomach.”

    CBD is a property of cannabis, which in its legal form is derived from the hemp plant, a member of the cannabis family and cousin to the marijuana plant. In it’s illegal form, CBD is found in the marijuana plant, along with high levels of Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which elicits the feeling of being “high.”

    The CBD market has exploded in recent years across the country, sold in the form of food, drinks and ointments in bakeries, vending machines, coffee shops and grocery stores.

    A study published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine found CBD significantly reduced chronic inflammation and pain in some mice and rats, and suggested it could do the same for humans.

    Another review in Neurotherapeutics found CBD could be helpful for people with opioid addiction. Limited research and user testimonies also have deemed it beneficial in reducing anxiety and helping with smoking cessation.

    In 2018, after researching the safety and effectiveness of CBD oil for treating epilepsy, the FDA approved the use of CBD for two rare conditions characterized by epileptic seizures.

    OVER THE COUNTER CBD

    Beezy Beez honey Inc. on Staten Island has offered a variety of CBD products, including honey and “muscle gel roll-ons,” for the past two years. The company was formed several years ago, and has since expanded its product line in the midst of the cannabis boom.

    Owner Igor Yakovlev began shipping CBD products to businesses across New York and beyond, while servicing a few customers a day at his headquarters on Victory Boulevard in Travis.

    “We have many customers that come to buy our products who said it has helped them with their anxiety issues,” said Yakovlev. “Those same customers have been coming back now for two-plus years.”

    DOCTOR’S NOTE

    For medical marijuana users, a mix of CBD and THC derived from the marijuana plant are prescribed at dispensaries across the city, including CITIVA Brooklyn where many of the clients are over the age of 60 and travel to the shop from Staten Island. A new CITIVA location is set to open this fall in New Dorp.

    One thing to watch out for is the potential for the trace amounts of THC found in CBD products that aren’t enough to get a person high, but, according to studies could potentially show up in a drug test.

    It’s too early in the research to say exactly how beneficial over-the-counter CBD could be for patients, but for the time being “it’s benign enough, if (patients) want to use it,” said Strange.

    “We need more data on this,” he said. „That’s the most important thing we can say as physicians.”